The flag has two bands of color lying horizontally with a yellow star at the center of the flag. The two bands of horizontal colors are red on top and green below. The green color means agricultural abundance of the nation while the red signifies revolution. The yellow star placed between the red and green bands means the light the guided the revolution.
The Flag of Ghana: The flag of Ghana was adopted officially in The flag has three major colors namely red, gold and dark green. These three colors lie horizontally with the red on top and the green below.
A black star is placed at the center of the flag. The red symbolizes the blood of the fallen heroes; the gold means the rich mineral resources of the country while the green means lavish natural endowment.
Okoh Theodosia designed the Ghanaian flag. The flag has three colors which are blue, red and green. The flag has three colors namely orange, white and green. The 3 colors stand vertically with the orange and green at the edge.
The formation of African independence movements
The orange signifies the fertile land of the north, the white means peace and the green means the lush greenery of the southern part of the country. The Map has three colors namely green, yellow and red.
These three bands stand vertically with the green and red at the edge. A green star is placed at the middle of the flag. The colors on the flag of Senegal has different connotation to different people. The yellow and red is basically taken to represent wealth and the green represents the primary parts of the country.
On the other hand, the Christians see the green as fertility.Comm introduction to speech columbia college course
The flag has two colors of green and white. The green color is split to the edge while the white occupying the middle.There thus developed a general feeling among the intelligentsia that the colonies were being deliberately exploited by ever more firmly entrenched European political and economic systems and that there had developed a new, wider, and mobilizable public to appeal to for support.
The result, during —50, was the virtual suppression of the RDA in Africa by the colonial administrations. In the established politicians brought in Kwame Nkrumahwho had studied in the United States and Britain and had been active in the Pan-African movementto organize a nationalist party with mass support. In European trading houses were boycottedand some rioting took place in the larger towns. An official inquiry concluded that the underlying problem was political frustration and that African participation in government should be increased until the colony became self-governing.
Intherefore, a new constitution was introduced in which the legislative council gave way to an assembly dominated by African elected members, to which African ministers were responsible for the conduct of much government business. By this time Nkrumah had organized his own mass political partyable to win any general election, and during the following years he negotiated with the British a series of concessions that resulted in in the Gold Coast becoming the independent state of Ghana.
Once the British had accepted the principle of cooperating with nationalist politicians, their other western African colonies began to follow the example set by the Gold Coast. The other colonies were not so well placed. The small size of The Gambia was the principal factor contributing to the delay of its independence until When independence was achieved inthese deeply rooted problems had been papered over rather than solved.The Geography of Conflict in North and West Africa
Nigeria presented the greatest challenge to British and African policymakers alike. These parties expected the whole country quickly to follow the Ghanaian pattern of constitutional change.
But any elective central assembly was bound to be dominated by the north, which had some 57 percent of the population and whose economic and social development had lagged far behind.
The first political expedient was to convert Nigeria into a federation of three regions. In this allowed the east and the west to achieve internal self-government without waiting for the north, but it left open the questions of how politics were to be conducted at the centre and how Nigerian independence was to be secured.
At this juncture it occurred to the northern leaders that by allying themselves to one of the southern parties they might maintain their local monopoly of power and gain prestige in the country as a whole by asking for its independence.
The problem of central politics was thus resolved when the northern leaders entered a coalition federal government with the NCNC, and in Nigeria became independent. The votes of a small bloc of African deputies in the French National Assembly were of considerable value to the shifting coalitions of non-Communist parties that made up the unstable French governments of the s, and the RDA began to seek to influence these governments to allow greater freedom to the colonies.
Senghor had stood outside the RDA since the days of its alliance with the Communists, which he had thought could only bring disaster. In the French Fourth Republic collapsed and de Gaulle was returned to power. On September 28,in a referendum, the colonies were offered full internal self-government as fellow members with France of a French Community that would deal with supranational affairs. Senegal and the French Sudan were then emboldened in to come together in a Federation of Mali and to ask for and to receive complete independence within the community.
These two territories separated in the following year, but all the others now asked for independence before negotiating conditions for association with France, and by all the former French colonies were de jure independent states. By that time only the excessively conservative regimes of Portugal and Spain sought to maintain the colonial principle in western Africa. Encouraged and aided by independent neighbours, Guinean nationalists took up arms in and after 10 years of fighting expelled the Portuguese from three-quarters of Portuguese Guinea.
In the strain of this war and of wars in Mozambique and Angola caused the Portuguese people and army to overthrow their dictatorship. Spain concluded in that the best way to preserve its interests in equatorial Africa was to grant independence to its people without preparing them for it.
The result was chaos.West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. Studies of human mitochondrial DNA suggest that all humans share common ancestors from Africaoriginated in the southwestern regions near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola at the approximate coordinates A particular haplogroup of DNA, haplogroup L2evolved between 87, andyears ago  or approx. Most of its subclades are largely confined to West and western-Central Africa.
Africans bearing the E-V38 E1b1a likely traversed across the Saharafrom east to west, approximately 19, years ago. Due to the large numbers of West Africans enslaved in the Atlantic slave trademost African AmericansAfro Latin Americans and Black Caribbeans are likely to have mixed ancestry from different regions of western Africa.
According to a study by Durvasula et al. The history of West Africa can be divided into five major periods: first, its prehistory, in which the first human settlers arrived, developed agricultureand made contact with peoples to the north; the second, the Iron Age empires that consolidated both intra-Africa, and extra-Africa trade, and developed centralized states; third, major polities flourished, which would undergo an extensive history of contact with non-Africans; fourth, the colonial period, in which Great Britain and France controlled nearly the entire region; and fifth, the post-independence era, in which the current nations were formed.
Archaeological evidence from central Mali indicates that West African peoples had independently invented pottery in the region by that period by at least BCE. It is believed that local peoples at that time had begun to become more settled, and to use pottery to store and cook indigenous grains including pearl millet.
At Goberothe Kiffianwho were hunters of tall stature, lived during the green Sahara between 10, and 8, years ago. The Tenerianwho were a more lightly built people that hunted, fished and herded cattle, lived during the latter part of the green Sahara approximately 7, to 4, years ago.
Sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B.
C, as well as the domestication of cattle. Though there is some uncertainty, some archaeologists believe that iron metallurgy was developed independently in sub-Saharan Africa possibly in West Africa.
Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at In the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, and an inter-region trade began to appear. The desertification of the Sahara and the climate change of the coast caused trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen. The domestication of the camel allowed the development of a trans-Saharan trade with cultures across the Saharaincluding Carthage and the Berbers ; major exports included goldcotton cloth, metal ornaments, ironand leather goods, which were then exchanged for salthorsestextiles, and other such materials.
Local leather, cloth, and gold also contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires. The development of the region's economy allowed more centralized states and civilizations to form, beginning with Dhar Tichitt that began in B. This was then succeeded by the Ghana Empire that first flourished between the 9th and 12th centuries, which later gave way to the Mali Empire. In current-day Mauritania, there exist archaeological sites in the towns of Tichit and Oualata that were initially constructed around B.
Also, based on the archaeology of the city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, the Mali empire came to dominate much of the region until its defeat by Almoravid invaders in Three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century. They included Ghana, Gao and Kanem. The Sosso Empire sought to fill the void but was defeated c. The Mali Empire continued to flourish for several centuries, most particularly under Sundiata's grandnephew Musa Ibefore a succession of weak rulers led to its collapse under MossiTuareg and Songhai invaders.
In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gaoin the Songhai Empireunder the leadership of Sonni Ali and Askia Mohammed. Meanwhile, south of the Sudan, strong city-states arose in Igbolandsuch as the 10th-century Kingdom of Nriwhich helped birth the arts and customs of the Igbo peopleBono State in the 11th century, which gave birth to the numerous Akan States, while Ife rose to prominence around the 14th century.
Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria. The Kingdom of Nri was a West African medieval state in present-day southeastern Nigeria and a subgroup of the Igbo people. The Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects. The kingdom existed as a sphere of religious and political influence over a third of Igboland and was administered by a priest-king called as an Eze Nri.Finalists by category
The Eze Nri managed trade and diplomacy on behalf of the Nri people and possessed divine authority in religious matters.World History Grades 6 and 7. Search this site. Common Core State Standards. Elements of Art. Early Humans. Ancient Egypt. Ancient India. Ancient China. Ancient Hebrews. Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome.
Fall of Rome. Medieval Europe. West Africa.
Medieval China. Feudal Japan. American Civilizations. The Renaissance. The Reformation. Scientific Revolution. Important Links. Cube Creator. Keyboarding Website. McGraw Hill Videos. MLA Format. Online Egg Timer. TCI - Primary Resources. Lea rning Activities. Independent W ork. Read 5.
Medieval Sites of Encounter - Mali. Africa Mask Project Objective : Students will design and create a West African style mask applying the element of art: space.Articles of incorporation nonprofit texas
Go to West Africa Mask Project website.PH's World History. Search this site. Syllabus 7th and 8th Course Syllabus.
Parents Parents PowerSchool Grades. Standards Common Core State Standards.
Early Humans. Ancient Egypt. Ancient India. Ancient China. Ancient Hebrews. Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome. Medieval Europe. West Africa. Medieval China. Feudal Japan.
American Civilization. The Renaissance. The Scientific Revolution. The Beginning. A Nation is Born.Cotto won the title in his last fight in August after a 21-month layoff when he defeated Yoshihiro Kamegai by unanimous decision.
We will find out whether Cotto has one eye on retirement and a foot out the door if he does, Ali can spoil the party inside MSG and pull off a monumental upset. MORE: Cotto on how he wants to be rememberedWhen boxing fans get a fight with a big name like Cotto, there are sure to be plenty of bets made.
Ali odds are pretty wide considering the where the two combatants are at in their careers. Online sportsbook Bovada's fight odds (as of Dec. This isn't the fight Cotto was looking for. He attended the Sept. Cotto and Golden Boy Promotions made overtures to some of the bigger names in the sport, including welterweight champion Errol Spence Jr. After those options were exhausted, the offer was extended to Ali.
The 29-year-old heads into the biggest fight of his career, riding a three-fight winning streak since his knockout loss to Vargas in March 2016. His most recent fight was July 29 against Johan Perez on a "Golden Boy Boxing on ESPN" card, winning by unanimous decision.
While anything can happen once Cotto and Ali step into the ring, the consensus in boxing is this will be a Cotto rout. Ali's never faced anyone in the same league as Cotto, and he needs to have a once-in-a-lifetime performance to be able to pull off the upset. Cotto gets the job done. He's the better pure boxer, has more power and fight experience, as this will mark the 10th time he's competed inside MSG. Add it up and it equals a successful swan song for the one of the all-time greats.
Ali: Start time, how to watchFor a fight with one of the biggest names in the sport, prop bets always surface. There are a couple of intriguing bets to wager if you want to go the unconventional route and, in the process, win some good money.
Here you go:Steven Muehlhausen is an MMA and boxing writer and contributor for Sporting News. You can listen to his podcast, "The Fight Junkies" here.
Ali betting odds, fight predictions, expert picks SPORT Former four division world champion Miguel Cotto (41-5, 33 KOs) steps inside the squared circle for the final time in his Hall of Fame career as he defends the WBO junior middleweight title Saturday against 2008 Olympian Sadam Ali (25-1, 14 KOs) from Madison Square Garden in New York City (HBO 10 p.Accessibility article
Kevin White, cHI Before you get too frustrated with White's inconsistencies, so, especially when that was one of the negatives about him coming out of West bet predictions 1x2 Virginia. You'll excuse him for being a bit raw,like the Packers, bet predictions 1x2 green Bay is allowing the second-fewest rushing yards in the NFL right now (74.Leave grass clippings on the lawn to decompose, nourish the grass and reduce your need for fertilizers.
Water only on cloudy days or at night. During dry spells, when water supplies are often at their lowest, water just once a month. The lawn will go brown and dormant, and then bounce back in the fall.
Sweep driveways, steps and sidewalks instead of hosing them. Cover swimming pools at night. Don't worry, it's easy. To install the latest version, just click here.
So, here are some tips on how to shop the easy way at our IKEA stores. IKEA stores have free parking and provide easy access for the disabled. Everything you need to shop is available at the entrance: pencils, paper, tape measures, store guides, catalogs, shopping carts, shopping bags and strollers. The IKEA store is family-friendly. Download the IKEA Store app with a smart shopping list at your fingertips you can save time by planning your purchases in the store.
Google Play Apple Store Relax, there's no hurry The store has lots of fully furnished showrooms. You can sit on the chairs, lie on the beds and try out everything. IKEA sales people won't bother you. Price tag information You'll find lots of details on the price tag - colors, materials, sizes, etc. You'll find the shelf number if you can collect the item from the Self-Serve area or a message to contact staff if you need to collect it at Furniture Pick-up.
Contact staff here You'll find IKEA staff at information desks with this symbol. They will arrange for you to collect your item at Furniture Pick-up if you need to. Time for a bite to eat Our restaurant isn't just for delicious full meals - stop in for a quick sandwich, piece of cake or cup of coffee.
Look for the special kids' menu, too. Pick up your purchases Check the notes you made of the shelf numbers to find your items in the Self-Serve area.
There are plenty of carts and bags to help you get it all to the checkouts. Selected items need to be picked up in Furniture Pick-up after your purchase is complete.
How to pay Our cashiers accept cash, credit cards, debit cards, and IKEA gift cards. Take it home today Since most IKEA furniture is flat-packed, you can take it home today in your car and enjoy it tonight. If you'd prefer, IKEA can arrange home delivery at a reasonable rate - contact your local IKEA store for details. It's ok to change your mind If you are not entirely satisfied with your purchase, simply return the unused item in its original packaging within 90 days unless noted below.
A receipt is required for all returns and exchanges. Refunds will be issued in the same method of payment as the original payment. So what should you do if you want to prepare for this version of the SAT but are mainly familiar with the old version. And do you really have to throw out all of your "old SAT" study materials.
We will go through the SAT section by section and note key differences between the old and new SAT. Next, we will explain how to prep for the new SAT based on those differences. We will point out places that you can still use old prep materials to prepare for the new SAT and also point you toward other free study resources online. We will also link extensively to our SAT study guides throughout this post to give you more targeted advice by section.
That means that the math section is now weighted more heavily on the SAT.
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